In the last decade, our group has established a strong collaboration and synergism in research through the Center of Cell Therapy (CTC). As a result, there was significant improvement in the quality and impact of our scientific work, and more intensive international networking was established. Some important achievements during the previous period paved the way for this new proposal focused on embryonic, pluripotent, somatic, and neoplastic stem cells and include “applied” research in normal and abnormal stem cells, without neglecting our strong basis in cell biology. Some of the pivotal results of our previous proposition include one of the first characterizations of mesenchymal stem cells (gene expression profile, ,  its broad occurrence in human tissues, relationship with pericytes and fibroblasts,  molecular mechanisms underlying immunomodulatory role). In addition, we have demonstrated the role of the NFκB pathway in primitive progenitors  and TGF-beta signaling  and mitochondrial function  in acute myeloid leukemia cells. We have characterized crucial molecular mechanisms in hematological malignancies (expression of cancer-testis antigens, miRNA expression profile,  multidrug resistance transporters, and telomerase and telomere dysfunction). We were the first Brazilian group establish new lines of human ES cells  and to to publish on iPS cells.  In the clinical areana, we demonstrated that high dose chemotherapy followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant is a feasible option to treat juvenile diabetes mellitus.  Full text (pdf version)